08 january 2017, 22:22

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The Telegraph called devices which allow you to transmit information over vast distances with great speed. During the history created a huge number of different optical telegraphs telegraphs the most ancient methods of transmitting information long-distance magnetic and electrostatic telegraphs telegraphs which use the chemical action of the current the wire with a magnetic action of a current writing telegraphs and many more. The optical Telegraph Transfer fast signs at long distances in various ways. For this purpose, can be used sound and light signals and also the various electric and magnetic actions. The oldest and however the most common of these methods at all times, almost half of the IX century was the light, or by lights and other light signals or by using special devices with the proper moving parts of various mutual position of which should be symbols. It was suggested, Busrider in 1725 that the tower of Babel could be used for optical telegraphy.

The Chinese for the same purpose are lit bright lights on towers located along the entire great wall of China. This optical Telegraph was arranged incidentally in 1778 to establish communications between the Paris and Greenwich observatories. Such a method of transmission of news by means of fires applies also in the present time, the peoples in Africa. The main parts of such devices are mirrors through which the sun's rays can be sent to the place where the same mirror. Symbols are formed short turns in one or the other side. Under favorable conditions of weather such signs can be transmitted at a distance of 60 kilometers.

Night in the moonlight the distance is reduced to 15 kilometers and when illuminated by lamps and up to 5 kilometers. In the optical Telegraph of another kind of symbols is not transmitted by means of light sources and rays sent from one place to another and through special arrangements with some moving parts in the form of lines or circles visible from a distance. The first inventor of this kind of optical Telegraph need to recognize the famous English scientist Hooke Nooke. Although such a method of transmission of signs has been stated in the literature before, but Guk is not only invented but also arranged a signal unit which was shown to them in 1684. Then the Frenchman Amontons in 1702 arranged optical Telegraph with movable slats which he showed in action at court. But only the French Chappe brothers were able to invent in 1780 is quite practical instrument and make it valid.

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